• Base and Subgrade Treatments - Tennessee Department of ...

    close conformity to the lines, grades, thickness and cross sections shown on the Plans or ... stone, gravel or similar material is encountered in the subgrade in such quantity and ..... for gradation at the aggregate production plant, based on samples taken ...... length to provide for backing-up the paving train the following day.

  • SLAG RAILROAD BALLAST - Phoenix Services, Llc.

    aircooled slag but is a glassy, granular material formed by quench- ing the molten ... slag and of steel slags are used railroad tracks, from industrial spurs and...

  • Application of geotextiles in railroads - Indian Textiles Journal - The ...

    Spun bonded, which combines fibre spinning, web forming and finishing in a continuous ... The geo-textiles ensure that the aggregates maintain its load bearing ability. ... In the last 50 years, the embankments of new railway lines have been ... the sub-grade attempt to enter into the voids of the stone ballast and thus reduce...


    Sep 30, 2011 ... tracks and walkway aggregate for maintenance of way walkway. Obtain ... American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association ... Submit a report confirming the readiness of the subgrade for ballast placement ... Ballast/walkway aggregate shall be crushed stone broken by the crusher and.

  • geogrid reinforcement of railway ballast - University of Nottingham

    The railway track system forms an integral part of the transportation infrastructure of ..... Figure 4.11 – Effect of reinforcement on stiff and soft subgrade. 96.

  • Bid document - DFCCIL

    BELOW DFC TRACK. TWO PACKET .... Railway‟s Standard specification for material and works , as amended / corrected up to date of ..... using 20mm graded crushed stone aggregate and ... Earthwork in filling in in Subgrade of formation as.

  • Sample Railroad Ballast Specifications - the Coos Bay Rail Link

    stress in the railroad track structure under the chairmanship of Professor A. N. Talbot. ...... The aggregate production facility shall be of such a design to permit .... distribution of the track loadings to the subgrade and facilitating maintenance. ... The preferred ballast materials would be a clean and graded crushed stone...

  • Greenville and Spartanburg, SC Asphalt Paving Driveway

    The Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is made from a combination of roughly 95% aggregates (various stones, sand, gravel) and binded or fused ... Aggregate rocks range from granite and sandstone to river gravel. ... The subgrade or "formation level" is the native material underneath a constructed road, pavement or railway track.

  • Typical Sections - New York State Department of Transportation

    Jul 9, 2004 ... 3-14 Normal Positions of Guide Rail Relative to Shoulder Break ... 3-21 Curb Addition Details (Stone or Precast) ... individual elements may be brought together to form typical sections for ... between embankment foundation and subgrade surface. ... C. Base Course-Large aggregate asphalt layer placed as.

  • Use of Geosynthetics to Optimise Track Renewals in the UK

    Subgrade/Formation erosion. • Soft formation. • Network Rail standard treatments. • Case History – Non ... Airdrie to Bathgate – Reinstatement of Redundant Formation. • Peat Areas .... Clayey/silty Crushed Stone Aggregate (5 to 20%). Slurried...

  • Chaitanya Calla - Claisse.info

    uniform settlement of ballasted railway track, provided the subgrade is adequately ... while in measured shovel packing and stoneblowing new stones of smaller size are ..... Grading of 5mm and 10mm aggregate used as crib ballast ... the formation but if the formation is adequately specified ballast remains the main cause of.

  • PDF (1st Chapter)

    this ballasted railway track is approximately RM 30 billion. The modernized ballasted ... sub-ballast and subgrade or formation (substructure). Fig. 1.1 shows the...

  • Railway track settlements - a literature review - Engineering Class ...

    Jan 13, 2004 ... formation layer and/or the subground (the formation). Historically, the ... Ballast is the selected material placed on top of the track subgrade to support the ... Traditionally, angular, crushed, hard stones and .... aggregates.

  • division 1100 - Kansas Department of Transportation

    1112 – AGGREGATES FOR SURFACING OR SUBGRADE MODIFICATION FOR COUNTY ... Before beginning aggregate production for quality control/quality assurance .... Provide coarse aggregate that is crushed or uncrushed gravel, chat, or crushed stone. .... Rail shipment exceeding 12 hours is acceptable for binning.

  • Standard Specifications - Delaware Department of Transportation

    254 STONE CHECK DAM . .... COARSE AGGREGATE FOR FOUNDATION STABILIZATION AND ..... water, highway, or railway and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads .... One or more layers of specified material thickness placed on a subgrade to ... forming a part of the Specifications.

  • Complete KYTC Standard Specifications-2012 - Kentucky ...

    302. Dense Graded Aggregate Base (DGA) and Crushed Stone Base (CSB). 303. Pavement Drainage Blanket. 304. Geogrid Reinforcement for Subgrade and Aggregate Base Courses ..... obstruction, such as water, a highway, or a railway, and carrying ..... The acute angle formed by the intersection of a line normal to the.

  • Materials and Workmanship Specifications - Land Transport Authority

    Jun 1, 2010 ... PREPARATION OF RAIL TRACK FORMATION SURFACE. 4.15 ..... Materials. Preparation of Subgrade. ... Plant-mixed Graded Granite Aggregate Base. ... Stone Mastic Asphalt.

  • Slab Track Systems for High-Speed Railways - DiVA

    Keywords: Railway slab track, High-speed tracks, Finite element analysis, ...... The necessary reinforcement to limit the formation of cracks must be between 0.8 and ... A mix of mineral aggregates is used like sandstone, crushed sand and stone chips. ..... Figure 11: Stone columns installed in approach subgrade (Read & Li.


    A typical railway track consists of superstructure (rails, fastenings and sleepers) and sub-structure (ballast, sub-ballast and formation including sub-grade). ... structure and distribution of the track loading to the sub grade and facilitating ... The ballast should be clean and graded crushed stone aggregate with hard, dense.....

  • Railways - Terram

    track-bed construction and renewals around the world. When correctly ... construction of highways, railways, landfills, pipelines ... formed at the ballast/subgrade interface; particularly if there are .... site infill soils (if suitable), top soils, sand, aggregates and concrete. .... resist damage from large angular stone particles.

  • Read more.... - TechFab India

    subgrade below the railway tracks use of geotextile may increase cast of railway tracks, however ... manufacturing of geotextiles includes fibre production, fibre.

  • Research Results Digest 79 - Design of Track Transitions

    lasted approach track. • Installation of stone columns to strengthen ... tion problems than rail transit, the basic track perfor- .... has a layer of aggregate between the ties and the sub- grade to ..... Figure 15 Stone columns installed in approach subgrade. that can be ... formed on the approaches to an open deck steel bridge.

  • TENAX solutions for railways: geogrids for ballast reinforcement

    185,000m2 of geogrid have been installed for Croatian Railroad. ... compacted over TENAX geogrids, stone particles partially enter the apertures of the grid ... the track causes the railway ballast to eventually deteriorate with voids forming within ... TENAX geogrids are also used in new line construction over poor subgrade.

  • Advances in Transportation Geotechnics 2 - CRC Press Book

    Geotechnics of pavements, railway tracks and airfields; ... and academics involved in geotechnical and pavement engineering of roads, railways and airfields.

  • Bitumen basics guide 1.6 - BP

    and stones together and line drains, watercourses and grain silos. It was also ... to bind mixtures of aggregates in road building in the modern style. By the turn of...

  • Subgrade Properties - Railway Substructure Engineering

    Sep 7, 2014 ... The subgrade forms the foundation of the railroad track structure, supporting the ... The mud formed from the fine soil particles and the free water is pumped into .... They consist of well-graded crushed stone aggregate that is...


    (f) Stone aggregate shall be designated by their standard sizes and shall conform ..... Construction traffic shall not use the cut formation and finished subgrade .... In advance to any blasting work within 50 m of any railway track or structures, the.

  • Download Pdf

    stresses in formation level that is the lower most level which will sustains or ... aspects of these components; that is rails, sleepers, ballast or sub-grade layer or ... where we are talking about the railway track, this is horizontal load condition, may be in ...... are using stone aggregates then because of the contact of those sto...

  • Performance of Shred Tires Mixed with Railway Subgrade in ...

    tire derived aggregates with particle size ranged from 0.475 to aggregation 2.5 cm in four various ... subgrade of railway tracks should supply the required ... river materials as broken stones. Also ..... of Formation Heavy Axle Load, Report No.

  • Uses of Aggregates - Sustainable Aggregates

    As a basic raw material aggregates can be put to many uses, although certain ... in other construction uses & fills and another 2% were used for railway ballast. ... The subgrade represents the natural soil, which will be compacted before the ... known as 'thin surfacing' or 'stone mastic asphalt' which use cellulose...

  • Track Railway - Academia.edu

    The main concern of this project is rail track, its formation, materials used for a standard ..... The subgrade is a very important component in the track structure and has ... Commonly used ballast materials include crushed stone and crushed slag...

  • Table of Contents - Thutong

    Profiles – Road profiles are sight rails set out to control formation level and stages of road ... G2 may be a blend of crushed stone and other fine aggregate used to adjust the ..... Pedestrian Guard Rail is generally used along the edge of footways to provide ... In some cases, where the sub grade strength is poor (unable.

  • State of the art report on soil improvement methods ... - INNOTRACK

    Feb 13, 2008 ... investigated methods”, where several realisations of a subgrade improvement ... UIC CODE 719 Earthworks and track bed for railway lines ... Embankment foundation together with permeable aggregate as a filler .... Achievement of track formation bearing capacity .... Method of grouted stone columns (DB).

  • guidelines on erosion control and drainage of railway formation

    of erosion and drainage of formation varies from one region to another. ... drainage from formation and adjacent areas is the most important factor in track ...... Water rises into the sub-grade by capillary action from the source of water below. .... The backfill may consist of sand-gravel material or crushed stone satisfying.

  • Download PDF - TenCate

    Feb 22, 2012 ... Subgrade Stabilization & Base Reinforcement. Port of Long ... In railway tracks, Mirafi® geosynthetics are placed between the existing formation and the ballast ...... consisted of a CA-16 graded crushed stone material, was.